Proof of diversity provides a mechanism for determining which version of the blockchain the mesh agreed to produce, but we also need a mechanism that the mesh can use to come to agreement on which version of the chain it will continue to extend.Scoring Voting Vote tabulation and freezing of blocks
Each block has a score based on the verifier that signed it. A lower score is better than a higher score. At each height, an incremental score is calculated relative to the block at the previous height, and the total score of a block is the sum of all incremental scores back to the frozen edge.
For a block signed by an existing verifier, the incremental score is zero plus four times the difference between the previous block's cycle length and this block's cycle length. If the verifier is not active in the mesh, five is added to the incremental score.
For a block signed by a new verifier, the incremental score is negative six plus four times the verifier's position (zero-indexed) in the new-verifier vote total list. Twelve is added to the score of a new verifier not present in this list, which is limited to a maximum size of three.
A verifier may change its vote for a block several times. Votes are timestamped to prevent replay attacks of old votes.
If a block has a score less than 0, a verifier may vote for it immediately after freezing the previous block. Otherwise, it must wait 2 seconds minimum plus 20 seconds for each point that a block has above 0. So a block with a score of 0 can be voted for after 2 seconds, while a block with a score of 4 can be for after 82 seconds.
If the leading block in a verifier's local tabulation has more than 50% of the vote, the verifier changes its vote to that block if the verifier is allowed to vote for that block based on its score. If the leading block in a verifier's local tabulation does not have more than 50% of the vote, the verifier changes its vote to that block if the verifier was allowed to vote for that block more than 10 seconds ago.
If neither of these conditions is true, the verifier votes for the block with the lowest score if it is allowed to cast a vote based on that block's score. Until such a block exists, the verifier waits to cast a vote.
In tallying votes, only votes from verifiers in the frozen edge's verification cycle are counted. A block is frozen if the votes for that block exceed three-fourths of the size of the verification cycle in two subsequent vote tabulations calculated at least 0.5 seconds apart.
At the three-fourths threshold, more than half of the cycle would have to maliciously send different votes to honest verifiers in order to cause a divergence of the chain, assuming the worst case in which the remaining honest verifiers are split evenly on which block to freeze.